Because ephedrine is a weak base (pKa 9.6), it is almost exclusively ionized at low gastric pH and absorption probably occurs in the more alkaline environment of the small intestine.
Where is ephedrine metabolized?
Ephedrine is metabolized in the liver by oxidative deamination, demethylation, aromatic hydroxylation, and conjugation. Metabolites of ephedrine include norepinephrine, benzoic acid, and hippuric acid. Ephedrine is resistant to metabolism by monoamine oxidase.
What receptors does ephedrine activate?
Ephedrine activates adrenergic α and β-receptors as well as inhibiting norepinephrine reuptake, and increasing the release of norepinephrine from vesicles in nerve cells.
What part of the brain does ephedrine affect?
Ephedrine, which has been used as a decongestant and weight loss agent, causes both central serotonin and dopamine (DA) release (Bowyer et al., 2000).
How long does ephedrine last in your body?
Onset with intravenous use is fast, while injection into a muscle can take 20 minutes, and by mouth can take an hour for effect. When given by injection it lasts about an hour and when taken by mouth it can last up to four hours.
Why do athletes take ephedrine?
Because ephedrine is a sympathomimetic and a central nervous system stimulant, it is commonly used as an energy enhancer. Ma huang-containing products are marketed and used to improve aerobic performance and endurance, reduce fatigue, increase alertness, improve reaction time, and even increase strength.
What is the difference between ephedrine and pseudoephedrine?
Ephedrine applied to the nasal mucosa reduces nasal resistance more quickly and strongly than oral pseudoephedrine, but with shorter action time , . At end of treatment, there may be a rebound effect with increased nasal resistance and recurrence of congestion, for which several hypotheses have been suggested.
Can you get ephedrine over-the-counter?
Ephedrine is available over-the-counter (OTC) as an oral medication in combination with the expectorant guaifenesin, and comes in the form of tablets, caplets, or syrup. It is not a replacement for prescription asthma treatments.
What is the price of ephedrine?
Ephedrine HCl is up from 1,414 rupees per kilo to 1,431 rupees, while pseudoephedrine HCl goes down from 2,301 rupees per kg to 1,029 rupees.
Can ephedrine make you tired?
With large doses of ephedrine sulfate most patients will experience nervousness, insomnia, vertigo, headache, tachycardia, palpitation and sweating. Some patients have nausea, vomiting and anorexia. Vesical sphincter spasm may occur and result in difficult and painful urination.
What is the generic name for ephedrine?
Ephedrine is also used to treat breathing problems (as a bronchodilator), nasal congestion (as a decongestant), myasthenia gravis, narcolepsy, menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea), or urine-control problems. Ephedrine is available under the following different brand names: Akovaz, and Corphedra.