Ephedrine, a precursor of methamphetamine, is the active alkaloid of the plant Ephedra vulgaris, which has been used in China for centuries as the herb Ma Huang. Ma Huang was extensively marketed as a stimulant and weight loss product, and is popular among adolescents.
How is ephedrine extracted?
The inventors of the present invention performed a process at an ultra-high pressure to efficiently obtain ephedrine from Ephedra sinica Stapf, and extracted ephedrine by using a solvent of sulfuric acid and ethyl alcohol mixed at a ratio determined through fractionation, without the conventional addition of diethyl …
What is ephedrine found in?
Synthetic ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are found in over-the-counter decongestants and cold medicines and are used to treat asthma. Ephedrine is not approved in the United States as a drug for weight loss or to enhance athletic performance.
How much ephedrine is in Ephedra Sinica?
Ma-huang is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb derived from Ephedra sinica Stapf and other Ephedra species, used to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. It contains 0.5–2.5% by weight of total alkaloids, of which ephedrine accounts for 30 to 90%.
What is the difference between Ephedra and ephedrine?
Ephedrine is a chemical contained in the ephedra herb. Ephedrine has medical uses, mostly in operating rooms and intensive care units. Its chemical properties raise blood pressure and heart rate and open up the large air passages in the lungs.
How do you make yeast from ephedrine?
But to make ephedrine, the chemical benzaldehyde is added to the mix; the yeast ferments the benzaldehyde to produce an intermediate product called PAC, which is extracted using organic solvents, and then the PAC is converted into ephedrine in a second catalytic reaction which also requires the use of solvents.
What is the generic name for ephedrine?
Ephedrine is also used to treat breathing problems (as a bronchodilator), nasal congestion (as a decongestant), myasthenia gravis, narcolepsy, menstrual problems (dysmenorrhea), or urine-control problems. Ephedrine is available under the following different brand names: Akovaz, and Corphedra.
What is a substitute for ephedrine?
Heather Sue and thousands of other people took ephedra supplements to help them lose weight. The ban has now left many searching for new, safe options. Some of the popular alternatives include guarana, bitter orange and green tea extract.
What is the price of ephedrine?
Ephedrine HCl is up from 1,414 rupees per kilo to 1,431 rupees, while pseudoephedrine HCl goes down from 2,301 rupees per kg to 1,029 rupees.
Is it illegal to have ephedrine?
Dietary supplements containing ephedrine are illegal in the United States, with the exception of those used in traditional Chinese medicine, where its presence is noted by má huáng.
What plants contain the most ephedrine?
Other plant sources that contain such ephedrine alkaloids include Sida cordifolia L. and Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino. Common names that have been used for the various plants that contain ephedrine alkaloids include sea grape, yellow horse, joint fir, popotillo, and country mallow.